Holodomor Reference, Government Reports, Laws

Reference, Government Reports, Laws:

A.  Reference and Bibliography

Historical photo of children searching for food during Ukrainian famine genocide

Child victims of the Ukrainian famine/genocide searching for food on the streets of Kharkiv 1933

~ The Holodomor Reader; a Sourcebook on the Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine. compiled and edited by Bohdan Klid and Alexander J. Motyl.
Toronto: CIUS Press. 2012.

Best place to begin your research. First of its kind compendium of essential readings on the Holodomor. Includes 200 texts ranging from Stalin’s correspondence, to consular reports, survivor accounts, excerpts from scholarly works, poetry, and more. The Introduction also includes a concise historical summary of the Holodomor and the Holodomor as genocide (pp. xxxiv – xliv). Table of Contents and Introduction   (courtesy faminegenocide.com)

~ Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine: Documents and Materials. by Ruslan I. A. Pyrih. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy, 2008.

73 key primary source documents from Communist Party and KGB archives, in English translation.  Online access here courtesy of: Famine Genocide Commemorative Committee, Ukrainian Canadian Congress, Toronto Branch; the hard copy book also includes a glossary and numerous authentic photos of the period.

~ Famine-Genocide of 1932–33.  from the periodically updated Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine, hosted by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Alberta.

Succinct overview of the Holodomor (Famine 1932-33), with links to related articles and an extensive scholarly bibliography. This article updated through 2009. See also:  “The Stalinist Collectivization Campaign and the Famine-Genocide of 1932-3,” which offers a summary on this topic in the context of a general chronology of Ukrainian history.

~ The Ukrainian Famine (Holodomor) of 1932-1933, and Aspects of Stalinism: An Annotated Bibliography-In-Progress. by Cheryl A. Madden.

Focus on English language sources and scholarship, with very detailed annotations; online version not updated since early 2000’s.

~  “Famine 1932-1933: Selected Bibliography,” by Olya Pavlyshyn. In: Famine-genocide in Ukraine, 1932-1933: Western Archives, Testimonies and New Research, ed. by Wsevolod W.  Isajiw. Toronto: Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Centre, 2003. pp.191-212.

Extensive listing, particularly of articles published in Ukraine and elsewhere outside the US in the 1980’s, with an end-date of 1993; also strong in presenting Ukrainian language fiction based on the Holodomor.

B:  Government Reports and Laws

~ U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine. Investigation of the Ukrainian Famine, 1932-1933: Report to Congress.  Washington: U.S.GPO. 1988.

Of particular historic significance, the compilation here of the best available evidence of the time as examined by experts and legislators through an extensive series of hearings, led to  an Executive Summary of 19 findings, among them, that “Joseph Stalin and those around him committed genocide against Ukrainians in 1932-1933.”  The supporting documents include reports on the American response to the famine, scholarship on the famine, and summaries of hearings. Extensive Appendices include Selected Translations of Oral Histories, Italian Consular Dispatches during the famine, and more.

The First Interim Report  and the Second Interim Report (print only) includes the testimony of scores of famine survivors.

~ Ukrainian Famine of 1932 and 1933: Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, on S. 2456 … August 1, 1984Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 1984.

This hearing  is a precursor to the 1988 Investigation, and in addition to statements from legislators, includes several  short publications inserted for the record by experts Robert  Conquest, James Mace, Myron Kuropas, Miron Dolot, and others.

~ International Commission of Inquiry into the 1932–33 Famine in Ukraine. Final Report (excerpt). 1990.

Statement by Commission President Jacob W.F. Sundberg, pointing out the strong relevance of the study of Ukraine’s famine to the understanding of many later genocides, with particular reference to the events in Yugoslavia.

~ Law Of Ukraine No. 376-V.:On Holodomor In Ukraine In 1932-1933. [scroll down to #18 for the Law!]                                                                                                                  English translation of the ruling by the Parliament of Ukraine, Verkhovna Rada, on Nov 28, 2006, Kyiv, Ukraine, providing that ” The Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine is genocide against the Ukrainian people,” with related provisions.

~ Закон України про Голодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні Original Ukrainian language text of the above law.

~ Canada. Ukrainian Famine and Genocide (“Holodomor”) Memorial Day Act; S.C. 2008, c. 19; Assented to May 29, 2008.

~ Joint Statement on the Seventieth Anniversary of the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor), November 10, 2003, United Nations in New York.

Circulated as a document of the  U.N. General Assembly under agenda item 117 (b), Fifty-eighth session.

~ Remembrance of Victims of the Great Famine (Holodomor) in Ukraine . UNESCO 34 C/50, October 8, 2007.

Honors the memory of the victims and requests the Director General to include Holodomor awareness in UNESCO educational programs.

~ US law on the establishment of the Holodomor memorial in the District of Columbia U.S. Public Law 109–340, 109th Congress: An Act to authorize the Government of Ukraine to establish a memorial on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor the victims of the manmade famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932–1933. Approved October 13, 2006.

NOTE on the U.S. government position regarding the Holodomor as genocide:

Many websites, including Wikipedia, list the U.S. among the countries that recognize the Holodomor as genocide.  U.S. official documents make reference to the Holodomor as genocide, but there is no Congressional resolution that  actually explicitly “resolves”  that the Holodomor is genocide.

The U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine. Investigation of the Ukrainian Famine, 1932-1933: Report to Congress. (1988), in its Executive Summary lists 19 findings, of which no. 16, states:  “Joseph Stalin and those around him committed genocide against Ukrainians in 1932-1933.”   This statement is the closest to an official declaration; however, the findings of commissions are considered advisory, rather than having the legal weight of Congressional resolutions that must be passed and approved.

Wikipedia cites  as the recognition document:  H. RES. 356 [108th] “Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932–1933.” (2003). However, nowhere does this document “resolve” that the famine is genocide. It  simply refers to the US Commission finding no.16 in one of several “whereas” statements that contribute to the final parts of the resolution, among them that: “this man-made famine was designed and implemented by the Soviet regime as a deliberate act of terror and mass murder against the Ukrainian people.”

In the Senate, also in 2003, the following Resolution was introduced, but NOT passed: S.RES. 202  [108th] – “A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the genocidal Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933”  This resolution, did in fact resolve (#4, on p. 3 of the bill (pdf):

“(4) the man-made Ukraine famine of 1932–33 15 was an act of genocide as defined by the United Nations Genocide Convention;”

Unfortunately, S. Res. 202 died in Committee and was never put to a vote on the floor.

Another resolution was passed in the House in 2008: H. RES.1314 [110th] which clearly describes the genocidal nature of the famine and refers to the US Commission findings, but again without directly calling the famine a genocide, or resolving that it is a genocide.