Holodomor: scholarly short works online
~ Soviet Genocide in the Ukraine by Raphael Lemkin, 1953.
Original paper located in the Raphael Lemkin Papers archive, New York Public Library. Lemkin, who coined the word genocide and authored the UN Convention on Genocide, asserts from the outset that “the classic example of the Soviet genocide” is the “destruction of the Ukrainian nation.” After laying out a clear description of the 4 pronged attack against the Ukrainian people: destruction of its intelligentsia, its spiritual leadership, its farmers, and its ethnic unity, he concludes “This is not simply a case of mass murder. It is a case of genocide, of the destruction, not of individuals only, but of a culture and a nation.”
A. Brief historical summaries by scholars
~ Holodomor Basic Facts
Includes two excellent, brief summaries by the staff of the Holodomor Research and Education Consortium. The Genocide article was prepared by HREC research director Bohdan Klid for the ABC-CLIO Modern Genocide database, and is available on the HREC website, courtesy of the publishers.
~ Great Famine Story Map Journal A project of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. A brief chronology of the famine through maps, photos, and narrative. Emphasis on the demography, as well as the economic and political geography of the Holodomor.
~ Ukrainian Famine Very brief segment from the Library of Congress’s series “Revelations from the Russian Archives: Internal Workings of the Soviet Union.” Includes an image of a primary source document, an official order to blacklist villages in Ukraine because of grain collection failures.
B. Selected articles and other short works
~ “Lemkin on Genocide of Nations,” by Roman Serbyn. Originally published in: Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (2009), 123-130.
Brief essay on Lemkin’s life and work on defining genocide, along with the full, annotated text of his 1953 speech: “Soviet Genocide in the Ukraine.”
~ “The Great Ukrainian Famine of 1932-33,” by Nicolas Werth.
Published in Mass Violence & Resistance (MV&R); formerly the Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, 18 April 2008.
Meticulously documents the implementation of the famine by Stalin and his cadres, with numerous references to actual communiques. Concludes with one of most clearly presented arguments for defining the Holodomor as genocide.
~ “Mass Crimes under Stalin (1930-1953),” by Nicolas Werth.
Published in Mass Violence & Resistance (MV&R); formerlythe Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, 14 March 2008.
~ “Dekulakisation as mass violence,” by Nicolas Werth.
Published in Mass Violence & Resistance (MV&R); formerlythe Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, 23 September 2011.
In concluding, states how this mass crime was an act of “class genocide.”
~ “Ukraine 1933: The Terror Famine,” by Robert Conquest.
Paper delivered as part of the series: Genocide and Mass Murder in the Twentieth Century: A Historical Perspective, sponsored by the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. 1995.
Very readable presentation on Stalin’s imposition of the famine, with a particularly good description of the social aspects, such as the demonization of the peasants, and the consequences of living the lie of denial.
~ “Defying Death: Women’s Experience of the Holodomor, 1932-1933,”by Oksana Kis. Aspasia; 2013, Vol. 7 Issue 1, pp. 42-67.
The author writes (p. 48): “I believe that by exploring and highlighting women’s practices of resistance and survival strategies in the harshest circumstances this article shows that women were not submissive victims passively accepting their fate. On the contrary, they defied death. I hope to contribute to restoring the human dignity of those who died and those who survived.
~ “Soviet Man-Made Famine In Ukraine,” by James Mace. Reprint of a chapter that originally appeared in: Century Of Genocide : Critical Essays And Eyewitness Accounts, ed. by Samuel Totten; William S Parsons; Israel W Charny. Routledge, 2004. (also in earlier and later editions).
Summarizes the development and execution of the Holodomor; particularly insightful in comparing the totalitarian ideologies of Hitler and Stalin, and in demonstrating how Stalin, through propaganda and highly engineered class warfare, reduced Marxism to the level of “sanctioning … perhaps the paradigmatic example of what Leo Kuper (1990) has called the genocide state.” Also cautions against the “selective perception of evil.”
~ “Ukraine (Famine),” by Roman Serbyn. Reprint of the original article in the subscriber based online Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, edited by Dinah L. Shelton, (digitally accessible in the Gale Virtual Reference Library), Macmillan Reference USA. Detroit. 2005, pp. 1055-1061.
Detailed overview of the implementation of the Holodomor, and how it meets the definition of genocide. Also discusses earlier famines that occurred in Ukraine and elsewhere in the USSR, and how they differed from the Holodomor.
~ “Understanding the Causes and Consequences of the Famine-Genocide of 1932-1933 in Ukraine: The Significance of Newly Discovered Archival Documents,” by Yurii Shapoval. (reformatted copy of the “revised text online”); originally published in Famine in Ukraine, 1932-1933: Genocide by Other Means, ed. Taras Hunczak and Roman Serbyn. New York: Shevchenko Scientific Society, 2007, pp. 84-97.
~ “Revisiting the Great Famine of 1932–1933 ; Politics of Memory and Public Consciousness (Ukraine after 1991),” by Georgiy Kasianov. in Past in the Making: Recent History Revisions and Historical Revisionism in Central Europe After 1989ed. by Michal Kopecek: Central European University Press, 2007, pp. 197-215.
~ “Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933 Genocide?” by Yaroslav Bilinsky. Journal of Genocide Research. 1999: 1(2), pp. 147-156. (reprint of the original article).
~ Holodomor: Ukrainian Genocide in the Early 1930s, prepared by the Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, .
Illustrated booklet that summarizes the events of the Holodomor with some of the latest evidence.
~Dancing with Stalin by Steve Komarnyckyj.Speech presented at the Cambridge University Ukrainian Society Meeting in Cambridge, England, February 6, 2009. Beautifully expressive narrative of the Holodomor – its causes and consequences. Thoroughly researched with references.
~ The Ukrainian Weekly on the Great Famine of 1932-33. Rich collection of reports, testimonies, and articles, primarily 1980’s and 1990’s.
~ “A classification of denials of the Holocaust and other genocides.” by Israel W. Charny. in The Genocide Studies Reader, ed. by Samuel Totten and Paul R. Bartrop. New York: Routledge, 2009. pp. 518 -537.
The Holodomor presents the classic case of denial. Although Charny does not mention the Holodomor specifically, his classification provides a perfect structure for demonstrating in detail how the Holodomor was denied or ignored over the years, along with pertinent countermeasures.
~ “International Legal Responsibility for Genocide: Justice in the Courts”, by Bohdan A. Futey. Presented at the Conference on Famine-Holodomor, September 25-26, 2008, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Detailed and documented analysis of the “evolution of both the definition of ‘genocide’ under the Genocide Convention and prosecutions for acts of genocide before various international and domestic tribunals,” providing clear precedents for the Famine-Holodomor of 1932-33 in Ukraine to be legally recognized as genocide.